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Context of 'Late June 2002: Agriculture Canada Study Finds Widespread GM Contamination'

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As part of an effort to increase the acceptance of genetically modified crops in Indonesia, Monsanto contracts PT Harvest International, a Jakarta-based investment consulting firm. The firm helps Monsanto secure the various government approvals and licenses necessary to sell its products there and also lobbies and allegedly bribes government officials (see Late June 2002) (see September 2000). Much of the lobbying is aimed at opening the country up to Monsanto’s Bollgard Bt cotton, which Monsanto says is environmentally-friendly and less reliant on pesticide. The company also claims its genetically modified seeds will produce as much as 3 tons of cotton per hectare. Much of Harvest’s work is coordinated and overseen by a US-based senior Monsanto manager and two Monsanto-controlled entities based in Jakarta: PT Monagro Kimia and PT Branita Sandhini. [Jakarta Post, 1/10/2001; Institute for Science in Society, 12/5/2004; US Securities and Exchange Commission, 1/6/2005]

Entity Tags: PT Harvest International Indonesia, Monsanto, PT Monagro Kimia, PT Branita Sandhini

Timeline Tags: Seeds

Scientists and farm economists in the world’s largest agricultural research network, the UN-funded Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), vote to condemn terminator technology and ban it in all of their crop-improvement programs. The decision to call the ban is made with little objection, save some concerns expressed by a delegate from Canada. American officials present at the meeting say nothing. Overall, members feel that terminator seeds would threaten food security, genetic diversity, biosafety, sustainable agriculture, and plant breeding. CGIAR, comprised of 16 international agricultural research centers, constitutes “the world’s largest public plant breeding effort for resource-poor farmers,” according to Rural Advancement Foundation International. [St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 11/1/1998; Rural Advancement Foundation International, 11/1/1998; London Times, 11/4/1998]

Entity Tags: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

Timeline Tags: Seeds

Canadian canola seeds sold to Europe by Advanta Canada are discovered to be contaminated with a small percentage of genetically modified (GM) seeds. [Canadian Press, 6/4/2000] The contamination resulted from pollen that was blown in from a farm growing GM crops more than a kilometer away. European citizens and governments are outraged and farmers in some of the countries plow their crops under. [Globe and Mail, 5/25/2000; New Scientist, 12/23/2000]

Entity Tags: Advanta Canada

Timeline Tags: Seeds

As a result of pressure from civil society organizations and the public, Rizal Ramli, Indonesia’s coordinating minister for the economy, postpones the signing of an agreement between Indonesia and Monsanto on the planting of 20,000 hectares (49,400 acres) of genetically modified (GM) cotton seed in the province of South Sulawesi. The following day, Sonny Keraf, minister of environment, says an environmental impact assessment will be needed before any of Monsanto’s GM seed is distributed. [Asia Times, 1/20/2005]

Entity Tags: Rizal Ramli, Sonny Keraf, Monsanto

Timeline Tags: Seeds

Bungaran Saragih, Indonesia’s minister of agriculture, grants Monsanto limited approval to grow its Bollgard Bt cotton in the province of South Sulawesi, even though an environmental impact assessment ordered in September (see September 2000) has not been completed. He says the cotton will be grown in an experimental project. According to SEC documents, this approval was obtained through the efforts of a Monsanto manager and one of its representative entities, possibly PT Harvest International Indonesia, in Jakarta. [Jakarta Post, 1/10/2001; US Securities and Exchange Commission, 1/6/2005; Asia Times, 1/20/2005]

Entity Tags: Bungaran Saragih, Monsanto

Timeline Tags: Seeds

An Australian study published in the Journal Science finds that wind or insects can carry canola pollen up to three kilometers (1.87 miles). In Canada, where the contamination of non-transgenic canola with genetically modified (GM) genes has become a serious problem, the present isolation distance of GM canola is a mere 100 meters. “The study underlines a clear risk,” the report says. “Once transgenes are introduced they can’t be completely controlled.” [National Post, 6/28/2002; Rieger et al., 7/4/2002; Manitoba Co-operator, 7/4/2002]

Entity Tags: Agriculture Canada and Agri-Food Canada, Agriculture Canada and Agri-Food Canada, Lyle Friesen

Timeline Tags: Seeds

Agriculture Canada publishes a study on the contamination of conventional crops with proprietary genetically modified genes. The study says that scientists in Saskatoon tested 70 certified canola seed lot samples for the presence of genetically modified genes and found that almost half were contaminated with Monsanto’s Roundup Ready gene and 37 percent with Pioneer Hi-Bred’s Liberty Link. Fifty-nine percent contained both. The study warns that “unless canola pedigree seed growers take extra care to control canola volunteers in the years between canola pedigree production, such volunteers could raise the presence of foreign genes to unacceptable levels.” [Manitoba Co-operator, 7/4/2002; Natural Life, 10/2002]

Entity Tags: Agriculture Canada and Agri-Food Canada

Timeline Tags: Seeds

Canada’s seed industry forms a group to review and recommend changes to the regulatory framework governing Canada’s seed sector. The group is a joint venture of the Canadian Seed Growers Association, the Canadian Seed Trade Association, the Canadian Seed Institute, and the Grain Growers of Canada. It is funded with a $600,000 CAD grant from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada’s Canadian Adaptation and Rural Development Fund. [Seed Sector Review, 5/5/2004 pdf file; Seed Sector Review, 5/5/2004 pdf file] The initiative is primarily concerned with improving the profitability of the seed sector and intends to examine ways to strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights through patents, royalties, and other changes that would make it more difficult for farmers to save seed. [Canadian Seed Alliance, 5/5/2004 pdf file]

Entity Tags: Canadian Seed Growers Association, Canadian Seed Trade Association, Agriculture Canada and Agri-Food Canada, Canadian Seed Institute, Grain Growers of Canada, Seed Sector Review

Timeline Tags: Seeds

The US, Mexico, and Canada enter into a trilateral agreement that allows food and grain shipments to have GM contamination levels as high as 5 percent. Shipments containing less than the five percent level will only have to bear a label indicating that the grain may contain genetically modified organisms. Additionally, accidental contamination of corn shipments into Mexico will not trigger any labeling requirements. Only the distributor will have to be informed of the contamination. The Mexican government enters into the agreement without the Mexican Senate’s approval. [Associated Press, 2/26/2004] Critics of the deal say the US is attempting to protect agricultural biotech companies and US agriculture. A large percentage of the country’s crop is genetically modified and as a result US farmers and biotechs are having a tough time finding markets abroad. Raising the acceptable contamination limits in other countries will help increase US grain exports. Critics also say that the deal could have a dramatically adverse effect on the genetic diversity of Mexico’s maize. It could result in the planting of more genetically modified corn since small farmers have been known to occasionally plant feed as seed. A few years before, maize growing in Oaxaca and Puebla was discovered to contain genetically modified genes (see October 2000; April 18, 2002). It is believed that the contamination was caused in part by farmers who had planted feed from local stores selling grain imported from the US. The ETC Group, a Canadian-based organization that is opposed to genetically modified crops, warns that if Mexico permits the import of grain with such high levels of contamination, the country’s “maize crop would be riddled with foreign DNA from the Rio Grande to Guatemala in less than a decade.” [ETC Group, 2/26/2004] Greenpeace believes that US efforts to convince countries to lower the accepted levels of contamination are aimed at undermining the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (see January 24-29, 2000), which has been set up to regulate transboundary shipments of genetically modified organisms. [Greenpeace, 2/11/2004]

Entity Tags: United States, Mexico

Timeline Tags: Seeds

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