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Context of 'July 8, 2004: Swedish Guantanamo Detainee Returns Home'

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After the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi is deposed in Iran and Ayatollah Khomeini takes over as Iran’s new leader in February 1979, the US is interested in continuing to work with the Iranian government. At first the US is taken aback by the new fundamentalist Islamic government, and National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski contemplates fomenting a military coup to stop Khomeini. But Khomeini is fiercely anti-communist, and Brzezinski soon decides that Iran’s new government can become part of an effective anti-Soviet alliance he calls the “arc of crisis’ (see November 1978-February 1979). The US embassy in Teheran, Iran, remains open, and more US officials come to Iran and begin tentative talks there. [Dreyfuss, 2005, pp. 236-243] The CIA in particular begins secretly collaborating with Iranian intelligence, providing information about the Soviet Union, Afghanistan, and Iraq. The CIA and Iran both covertly work to destabilize the pro-Soviet government in Afghanistan. [Dreyfuss, 2005, pp. 264-265] In early November 1979, Brzezinski secretly meets with Iranian Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan, as well as Iran’s foreign minister and defense minister, in Algiers, Algeria. But shortly before the meeting, the US agrees to allow the Shah, dying with cancer, to come to the US for medical treatment. Khomeini is enraged, and on November 4, just three days after the Algeria meeting begins, Khomeini arranges for students to take over the US embassy in Teheran and seize hostages. This realigns political forces in Iran and allows Khomeini to sideline Bazargan and other others meeting in Algeria, rendering the negotiations there moot. Brzezinski’s attempts to create a de facto alliance with Iran collapse. The US hostages will be held for over a year before finally being freed. [Dreyfuss, 2005, pp. 240-243]

Entity Tags: Central Intelligence Agency, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mehdi Bazargan, Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini, Zbigniew Brzezinski

Timeline Tags: US confrontation with Iran, Complete 911 Timeline, War in Afghanistan

Mehdi Ghezali, a Muslim Swede, is arrested by Pakistani police and handed over to US authorities. According to an account provided by Ghezali in 2004, he was kidnapped by Pakistani villagers shortly after crossing into Pakistan from Afghanistan where he was visiting a friend. The villagers sold him to the Pakistani police who then gave him to the Americans. He was then flown back to Afghanistan. [Reuters, 7/14/2004; Agence France-Presse, 7/14/2004]

Entity Tags: Mehdi Ghezali

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

Mehdi Ghezali, a Muslim Swede being held by US authorities, is transferred to Guantanamo, where he will be subjected to almost daily interrogations and subjected to a variety of abuses (see (July 2002)). [Reuters, 7/14/2004; Agence France-Presse, 7/14/2004]

Entity Tags: Mehdi Ghezali

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

Mehdi Ghezali, a detainee at Guantanamo, decides to stop answering his interrogators’ questions. According to Ghezali, they had been asking the same questions over and over again. At some point during his detention, the guards bring Ghezali an American woman so he can have sex with her. “They tried to make me lose my faith,” he tells the Agence France-Presse in July 2004. “Maybe they wanted to use it against me so I would cooperate.” [Reuters, 7/14/2004; Agence France-Presse, 7/14/2004]

Entity Tags: Mehdi Ghezali

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

Conditions for Mehdi Ghezali, a detainee at Guantanamo, become worse. After he is released in July, he will say that during this period he was shackled for hours, deprived of sleep, put in isolation, and subjected to cold temperatures for up to 14 hours at a time. “They put me in the interrogation room and used it as a refrigerator. They set the temperature to minus degrees so it was terribly cold and one had to freeze there for many hours; 12 to 14 hours one had to sit there, chained.” [Reuters, 7/14/2004; Agence France-Presse, 7/14/2004]

Entity Tags: Mehdi Ghezali

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

Mehdi Ghezali, held at Guantanamo since December 2001, returns to Sweden. He has lost feeling in part of his left foot because of the ankle chains he wore at Guantanamo. His teeth are also in poor condition. [Agence France-Presse, 7/14/2004]

Entity Tags: Mehdi Ghezali

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

Representatives from Iran, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan meet in Tehran as part of an effort to resolve territorial disputes concerning oil and gas exploitation in the Caspian Sea. During the meeting, Iran’s special representative for the Caspian Sea Affairs, Mehdi Safari, says that Iran is opposed to the militarization of the Caspian region. [Xinhua News Agency (Beijing), 5/16/2005]

Entity Tags: Mehdi Safari

Timeline Tags: US confrontation with Iran

Tehran’s ultra-conservative mayor, Mahmoud Ahmedinejad, wins 19.5 percent of the vote in Iran’s national election for president putting him in second place behind the moderate Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani, who receives 21 percent. A run-off election is scheduled for June 25 (see June 24, 2005). Many say the strong voter turn-out—62.7 percent—is a response to George Bush’s denunciations of Iran’s electoral system and government which angered many Iranians. “I picked Ahmadinejad to slap America in the face,” says one voter. Abdollah Momeni, a political affairs expert at Tehran University, tells the Washington Post: “People faced a dilemma. In people’s minds it became a choice between voting or giving Bush an excuse to attack.” [Associated Press, 6/18/2005; Washington Post, 6/19/2005] Mehdi Karroubi, a reformist cleric and former parliamentary speaker who comes in third, alleges voter fraud and calls for an investigation. “There has been bizarre interference. Money has changed hands,” he says. [BBC, 6/18/2005]

Entity Tags: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Hashemi Rafsanjani, Mehdi Karroubi

Timeline Tags: US confrontation with Iran

Britain accuses Iran of having played a role in the transfer of explosive technology from Hezbollah in Lebanon to the Shia cleric Moqtada al-Sadr’s Mahdi army in Iraq. British officials say Iran is responsible for the deaths of all eight UK soldiers killed in Iraq this year, all of whom died in explosions. Iran denies the charges. [BBC, 9/5/2005; Reuters, 10/6/2005]

Entity Tags: Moqtada al-Sadr, Hezbollah, Mahdi Army

Timeline Tags: US confrontation with Iran

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