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Context of 'December 1988: Dow Sells$1.5 Million Worth of Pesticides to Iraq'

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US and British companies are among several Western firms that sell Iraq materials that can be used to develop nuclear, chemical, biological, and conventional weapons. (Kelley 12/21/2002; Shenon 12/21/2002; Dobbs 12/30/2002; Pimentel 1/26/2003; Mackay 2/23/2003)
United States -
bullet Biological: American Type Culture Collection, several biological precursor agents for diseases like anthrax, gangrene, and the West Nile virus; Alcolac International, Thiodiglycol, the mustard gas precursor; Al Haddad, 60 tons of a chemical that could be used to make sarin; Dow Chemical, $1.5 million of pesticides (see December 1988). (Die Tageszeitung (Berlin) 10/18/2002; Shenon 12/21/2002; Dobbs 12/30/2002)
bullet Nuclear: TI Coating; UNISYS; Tektronix; Leybold Vacuum Systems; Finnigan-MAT-US; Hewlett Packard; Dupont; Consarc; Cerberus (LTD) ; Canberra Industries; Axel Electronics Inc. (Die Tageszeitung (Berlin) 10/18/2002; Paterson 10/29/2002)
bullet Rocket Program: Honeywell ;TI Coating; UNISYS; Honeywell; Semetex; Sperry Corp.; Tektronix; Hewlett Packard; Eastman Kodak; Electronic Associates; EZ Logic Data Systems, Inc. (Die Tageszeitung (Berlin) 10/18/2002; Paterson 10/29/2002)
bullet Conventional weapons: Honeywell; Spektra Physics; TI Coating; UNISYS; Sperry Corp.; Rockwell; Hewlett Packard; Carl Zeis -U.S; Union Carbide. (Die Tageszeitung (Berlin) 10/18/2002; Paterson 10/29/2002; Dobbs 12/30/2002; Pimentel 1/26/2003)
United Kingdom -
bullet : Nuclear weapons: Euromac Ltd-UK.; C Plath-Nuclear; Endshire Export Marketing; International Computer Systems; MEED International; International Computer Limited; Matrix Churchill Corp.; Ali Ashour Daghir.; Inwako; XYY Options, Inc. (Mackay 2/23/2003)
bullet Chemical weapons: MEED International; International Computer Systems; International Military Services; Sheffield Forgemasters; Technology Development Group; International Signal and Control; Terex Corporation; Walter Somers Ltd. (Mackay 2/23/2003)
bullet Conventional: International Computer Systems; International Computer Limited; TMG Engineering. (Mackay 2/23/2003)

Bechtel executive H.C. Clark notes in an interoffice memo that “the State Department has exerted strong pressure on Ex-Im [the US Export-Import Bank] to make additional credits available [in Iraq], including for this [Aqaba ] pipeline.” (Vallette 3/24/2003)

Frank Ricciardone, a US State Department desk officer, urges the Export-Import Bank to provide Iraq with short-term loans “for foreign relations purposes.” (Vallette 3/24/2003)

The Export-Import Bank approves a preliminary commitment of $484.5 million in loan guarantees for the Iraq-Jordan Aqaba pipeline project (see Mid-June, 1984). This commitment will remain in effect until 1986. (Vallette 3/24/2003)

Dow Chemical sells $1.5 million of pesticides to Iraq. An Export-Import Bank official says in a memorandum that he can find “no reason” to prevent the sale. Pesticide components can be used to make chemical weapons. (Dobbs 12/30/2002)


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