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Seeds

Delta & Pine Land

Project: Genetic Engineering and the Privatization of Seeds
Open-Content project managed by Derek, mtuck

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Monsanto says it will purchase Delta & Pine Land Company, the company that shares a jointly-held patent on terminator technology with the US Department of Agriculture (see March 3, 1998). [Ecologist, 9/1998] The acquisition will be stalled by US anti-trust agencies, and in December 1999 Monsanto will drop its bid (see December 19, 1999).

Entity Tags: Delta & Pine Land Company

Category Tags: Monsanto, Delta & Pine Land, Terminator seeds, Seed/biotech industry consolidation

During a debate on terminator technology held during the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in Rome, Harry Collins, Delta and Pine Land’s vice president for technology transfer, distributes a paper in which he claims, “The centuries old practice of farmer-saved seed is really a gross disadvantage to Third World farmers who inadvertently become locked into obsolete varieties because of their taking the ‘easy road’ and not planting newer, more productive varieties.” [Collins, 1998; Ecologist, 9/1998]

Entity Tags: Harry B. Collins

Category Tags: Biotech/seed industry, Farmers' rights, Terminator seeds, Delta & Pine Land

Darwin Murrell of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) emails a memo informing the department’s scientists that any research into terminator technology must now be reviewed by senior managers. The USDA jointly holds a patent on the technology with Delta & Pine Land (see March 3, 1998). This is a “sensitive issue,” Murrell says. “Imposing an extra level of review for this research will not create undue delays nor will it restrict the creative talents of our scientists, but it will help them avoid potential political and legal pitfalls.” [New Scientist, 10/10/1998]

Entity Tags: US Department of Agriculture, Clinton administration

Category Tags: Public-private collaboration, Delta & Pine Land, Terminator seeds, Perception management

Delta & Pine Land, a US seed company, dumps 30,000 sacks of expired chemical-coated cotton seed on a one-hectare area of land in a small rural community in Paraguay. This happens twice—once in November 1998, and then again in January, the following year. The dump site is only about 170 meters from a school in Rincon’I, a small community of around 3,000 people located about 120 kilometers from Asuncion. The seeds have a coating comprised of Orthene (acefate), benlate, lorsban, Metalaxyl, baytan-Thirann, and Kodiac (a genetically modified bacterium). The pesticides alone are estimated to account for 5 tons of the 660-ton pile. Labels on the seed bags reveal the presence of carcinogenic chemicals and warn that they can cause genetic mutations. At least one person dies as a result of exposure to the seeds. Agustin Ruiz Aranda, a 30-year-old father of four, dies on December 28, 1998. His wife is five months pregnant. The cause of death is recorded as “acute intoxication by contamination from toxic agrochemicals.” His symptoms were reportedly identical to those associated with intoxication with acephate and metamidophos. Acephate, one of the chemicals present in the seeds, turns into metamidophos when combined with water. Residents of Rincon’I complain of headaches, nausea, faintness, insomnia, and dizziness. Children suffer appetite loss and get welts on their skin. Physician Pablo Balmaceda sees 74 Rincon’I residents and finds that every one of them has been poisoned with organophosphates. A Brazilian biochemist, Lenini Alves de Carvalho, confirms Balmaceda’s conclusions. Agronomist Sebastian Pinheiro, director of the IUF’s Department of Health and the Environment, tells Inter Press Service, “There are no precedents that can help us predict what could happen. But people who have been contaminated will probably experience a decline in their natural defenses, and show a tendency to develop serious diseases.” A report dated April 21, 1999 by the Paraguayan Department for Environmental Protection will also confirm the presence of toxins, and it will warn that potential long-term risks include “genetic alterations, cancers, and poisoning.” It also finds contamination in the soil and water table and calls for more investigation. The incident is reported widely in Paraguay, but makes no headlines in the US. After a court ruling, the company admits that it dumped the seeds but refuses to acknowledge their toxicity. [Inter Press Service, 6/4/1999; Rural Advancement Foundation International, 6/22/1999; International Union of Food Workers, 6/25/1999] In mid-1999, Roger Malkin, president of Delta & Pine Land, will say that “investigations by the Paraguayan health and environmental agencies involved have been unable to identify a single case in which the health of people or the environment was affected” by the seed disposal. [Global Pesticide Campaigner, 8/1999] Rather than clean-up the site, the company offers monetary compensation and suggests that seeds could be used as green manure to fertilize the fields. “The tragic irony,” says Miguel Lovera, who works for an Asuncion-based organization, “is that the biotech industry promised to clean up the environment and help feed hungry people. Instead, my country is being used as a dumping ground for high-tech seeds and deadly chemicals that are contaminating rural communities and endangering lives.” Only the Geneva-based International Union of Food and Agricultural Workers offers the community of Rincon’I any help. Even Paraguay’s government resists helping the community. [Inter Press Service, 6/4/1999; Rural Advancement Foundation International, 6/22/1999; International Union of Food Workers, 6/25/1999]

Entity Tags: Delta & Pine Land Company

Category Tags: Environment, Delta & Pine Land

The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Delta & Pine Land conclude negotiations on a licensing agreement for genetic seed sterility technology. The technology would be used to make seeds that produce sterile plants as a way for companies to prevent farmers from saving and replanting proprietary seeds. The sterile seeds have been dubbed “terminator” seeds and “suicide” seeds. Defenders of the technology say it can be used to make genetically modified plants “biosafe” since the plants would be unable to spread their genes to other plants. The USDA and Delta & Pine Land jointly hold three patents on this technology, the first being issued in March 1998. The licensing agreement, under negotiation for some time, establishes the terms and conditions under which the company can use the technology. One of the terms of the agreement is that Delta & Pine Land would not be permitted to use the technology in any heirloom varieties of garden flowers and vegetables. Critics say this is hardly a restriction considering that biotechs have never expressed any interest in heirloom plants—rather their interest is in commercial agriculture. The license also prohibits the company from making any terminator seeds available before January 1, 2003. Any seeds using the technology would also have to be tested for safety by the USDA, the agreement says. Also, the agreement requires that the USDA allocate any royalties it receives to the USDA’s technology transfer efforts. [US Department of Agriculture, 8/1/2001; Rural Advancement Foundation International, 8/3/2001]

Entity Tags: US Department of Agriculture, Delta & Pine Land Company

Category Tags: Delta & Pine Land, Public-private collaboration, Terminator seeds

An ad hoc expert panel created by the sixth conference of the Biodiversity Convention convenes in Montreal to consider the impact that genetic use restriction technology (GURT), also known as terminator technology, would have on small farmers, indigenous peoples, and local communities. The expert panel hears from 11 groups including the US, Canada, two individual farmers, an indigenous rights group, four civil society organizations, the International Seed Federation, and the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV). [Collins and Krueger, n.d. pdf file; ETC Group, 4/17/2003; Convention on Biological Diversity, 9/29/2003 pdf file] The paper presented by UPOV, completed in January (see January 10, 2003), is not well-received by the US or industry representatives. Though the UPOV is generally an ardent supporter of intellectual rights protections, its analysis argues that GURT technology could threaten the interests of small farmers. The paper is so unwelcome, in fact, that the US and the International Seed Federation will succeed in pressuring the UPOV to revise it (see March 13, 2003-April 11, 2003), eliminating all references to GURT from the body of the paper. Prepared by Monsanto’s Roger Krueger and Harry Collins of Delta & Pine Land (D&PL), the International Seed Federation’s analysis takes the position that GURT technology would be advantageous for small farmers. Their paper argues that GURT would benefit small farmers and indigenous peoples by providing them with more options. “The International Seed Federation (ISF) believes that GURTs have the potential to benefit farmers and others in all size, economic and geographical areas… In reality, the potential effects of the GURTs may be beneficial to small farmers… ,” the paper asserts. “It is the strong belief and position of the ISF that GURTs would potentially provide more choice, to the farmers, rather than less choice.” Kruefer and Collins also say the technology could be used to prevent the contamination of non-transgenic plants with genetically modified genes and thus could be “quite positive for the environment and biodiversity.” [Collins and Krueger, n.d. pdf file; ETC Group, 4/17/2003; Convention on Biological Diversity, 9/29/2003 pdf file] The expert panel’s final report will list 35 “potential negative impacts” of GURT on small farmers and local communities and only nine “potential positive impacts.” It will recommend, among other things, “that parties and other governments consider the development of regulatory frameworks not to approve GURTs for field-testing and commercial use.” [Convention on Biological Diversity, 9/29/2003 pdf file]

Entity Tags: International Seed Federation, International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, Roger Krueger, Harry B. Collins

Category Tags: Terminator seeds, Biotech/seed industry, Farmers' rights, Terminator seeds, Indigenous peoples, Monsanto, Delta & Pine Land

At the ninth meeting of the Scientific Body of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (SBSTTA), held in Montreal, four countries—Canada, New Zealand, Argentina, and Brazil—convince the body to submit a recommendation to the next meeting of the Biodiversity Convention to forego action on an expert panel report. They argued that the report was flawed because it lacked scientific rigor. The report—commissioned by members of the Biodiversity Convention in late 2002—had identified numerous potential negative impacts that terminator technology could have on small farmers, indigenous peoples, and local communities (see February 19, 2003-February 21, 2003). If the member countries of the Biodiversity Convention, scheduled to meet in February 2004, accepts the SBSTTA’s recommendation to forego action, the issue will not be considered again until 2006. “SBSTTA9’s decision is wrong and dangerous,” says Alejandro Argumedo of the Indigenous Peoples Biodiversity Network. “Giving four governments the right to derail a report on the impact of terminator on indigenous peoples and local communities is like saying that the voices of these communities are not important, and that the social and economic impacts of terminator can be dismissed.” The ETC Group, a Canadian-based organization that opposes terminator technology, suggests that the presence of representatives from biotech firms Monsanto and Delta & Pine Land may have had something to do with the four countries’ objection to the expert panel report. The organization notes that industry representatives from these very same companies had been involved in the expert panel discussion and had submitted a report insisting that GURT technologies would benefit small farmers and indigenous peoples by providing them with “more choice.” Both Monsanto and Delta & Pine Land have patents on GURT technology. [Convention on Biodiversity, 11/14/2003; ETC Group, 11/14/2003]

Entity Tags: Canada, Harry B. Collins, Roger Krueger, Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, New Zealand, Argentina, Brazil

Category Tags: Terminator seeds, Terminator seeds, Monsanto, Delta & Pine Land, Indigenous peoples, Coercive tactics

At a UN meeting in Granada, the Convention on Biological Diversity’s “Working Group on Article 8(j)” meets ahead of the Convention’s eighth biennial meeting to discuss implementation of Article 8(j) and related provisions of the Convention, as requested by the seventh conference of the Convention that took place in 2004 in Kuala Lumpur. [Convention on Biodiversity, 2/20/2004] Article 8(j) of the convention calls on member countries to protect the traditional knowledge, innovation, and practices of indigenous peoples and peasant farmers. One of the group’s tasks is to “consider the potential socio-economic impacts of genetic use restriction technologies on indigenous and local communities” and make a recommendation based on three previous UN reports (see February 19, 2003-February 21, 2003; February 7, 2005; September 26, 2000-September 28, 2000) and official submissions from indigenous peoples and farmers’ organizations (see September 26, 2005-September 27, 2005). In every one of these reports, terminator technology was considered a threat to the poor. In spite of this, the Australian, New Zealand, and Canadian governments, guided by a US representative (the US has not ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity) and industry lobbyists, push to make the Working Group’s recommendations supportive of terminator technology. Lobbyists for the seed companies include Harry Collins, vice president of Delta & Pine Land, and Roger Krueger of Monsanto. Delta & Pine Land jointly holds three patents on terminator technology with the US Department of Agriculture. According to the ETC Group, a Canadian-based organization opposed to terminator seeds whose representatives are present at this meeting, “With a US government official consulting at her side, the Australian negotiator insisted on deleting reference to the ‘precautionary approach’ and used this as a bargaining chip to win controversial wording for a ‘case-by-case risk assessment’ of terminator.” However, the efforts of these countries to draft a recommendation that would weaken the moratorium on terminator seeds are opposed by the majority of other parties, including Spain, the African Group, Egypt, the Philippines, Norway, Pakistan, Kenya, India, and Brazil. [ETC Group, 1/27/2006; National Farmers Union, 1/27/2006; Canadian Press, 1/30/2006] Australia refuses to budge and it is finally agreed to revise the recommendation to say that further research on terminator technology should include “a case-by-case risk assessment basis with respect to different categories of GURTs technology subject to the precautionary approach.” [Convention on Biodiversity, 1/27/2005 pdf file]

Entity Tags: Brazil, Working Group on Article 8(j), Australia, Canada, Harry B. Collins, New Zealand, Spain, Philippines, India, Kenya, Norway, Pakistan, Roger Krueger, Egypt

Category Tags: Coercive tactics, Terminator seeds, Indigenous peoples, Terminator seeds, Monsanto, Delta & Pine Land

Monsanto announces that it will purchase Delta & Pine Land Company, the world’s largest cotton seed company, and the first company to obtain a patent on terminator technology (see March 3, 1998). Monsanto has had its sights on Delta & Pine Land for years. A previous plan to buy the company—announced in 1998 (see May 11, 1998)—fell through in December 1999 (see December 19, 1999). The acquisition means that Monsanto will control over 57 percent of the US cotton seed market. It will also deepen Monsanto’s reach into the developing world, where Delta & Pine Land has subsidiaries in 13 countries—including India, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey, and Pakistan. According to the ETC Group, an outspoken critic of terminator technology, “the takeover means that Monsanto will command a dominant position in one of the world’s most important agricultural trade commodities and that millions of cotton farmers will be under increased pressure to accept genetically modified (GM) cottonseed.” [Monsanto, 8/15/2006; ETC Group, 8/16/2006]

Entity Tags: Monsanto, Delta & Pine Land Company

Category Tags: Seed/biotech industry consolidation, Delta & Pine Land, Monsanto, Cotton

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