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Seeds

Resistance

Project: Genetic Engineering and the Privatization of Seeds
Open-Content project managed by Derek, mtuck

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Monsanto’s Bollgard Bt cotton fares poorly during a one-year trial period in South Sulawesi, a province of Indonesia. During a drought, much of the crop suffers from a population explosion in cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), though the pest has no effect on local varieties. Other pests also attack the crop. As a result, farmers are forced to purchase additional pesticides and use them in larger amounts than is usually necessary. Monsanto had said its Bt cotton would require less pesticide. It also claimed its product would produce yields as high as 3 tons per hectare, and even promised some farmers they would see 4-7 tons per hectare. But the average yield turns out to be only 1.1 ton per hectare with 74 percent of the total area planted actually producing less than one ton per hectare. Approximately 522 hectares experience complete failure. As a result of the poor harvest, 70 percent of the 4,438 farmers participating in the experiment are unable to repay the loans they obtained to buy the seed. They had purchased the cotton seed on credit for Rp 40,000/kg from Branita Sandhini, a Monsanto subsidiary, as part of a package deal that also included pesticide, herbicide (including Roundup), and fertilizer. By comparison, Kanesia, a non-transgenic cotton that is grown by other farmers in the area costs only Rp 5,000/kg. Not only does the farmers’ purchase agreement with Branita Sandhini require that they pay these high prices, it also prohibits them from saving and replanting harvested seed. After harvest, they rely on the same company to purchase their crop. However, before buying the harvest, Branita Sandhini asks the farmers to sign a new contract for the following year. In the new contract, the seed prices are double the previous year’s. Fearing that the company will refuse to buy their harvest if they do not sign, many indebted farmers reluctantly agree to the new terms. Others burn their fields in protest. One woman recalls, “The company didn’t give the farmer any choice, they never intended to improve our well being, they just put us in a debt circle, took away our independence and made us their slave forever. They try to monopolize everything, the seeds, the fertilizer, the marketing channel and even our life.” [Jakarta Post, 6/1/2002; Nation (Jakarta), 9/27/2004; Institute for Science in Society, 12/5/2004; Institute for Science in Society, 1/26/2005]

Entity Tags: PT Branita Sandhini, Monsanto

Category Tags: Monsanto, Indonesia, Farmers' rights, Cotton, Resistance

Canadian farmer Percy Schmeiser tours Africa warning farmers not to grow GM crops and sharing with them his story about being sued by biotech giant Monsanto. According to Schmeiser, representatives of the company follow him to almost every meeting, sometimes several in a single day. At one meeting, a Monsanto representative demands that he be given equal time to speak. But the organizers of the meeting, according to Schmeiser, tell him, “Get lost! If you want to speak to a meeting, call your own.” [Alive, 2/2002; Institute of Science in Society, 9/2002] At one point during his trip, while in South Africa, Schmeiser talks to a group of large landowners. The next day, about 30 of them declare a non-GMO zone and cancel their orders for Monsanto’s GM soya. Schmeiser later recalls, “That got Monsanto against me.” Later, Schmeiser runs into Wally Green of Monsanto in Johannesburg after the two spoke to Parliament. Green was not happy. According to Schmeiser, Green tells him, “Nobody stands up to Monsanto. We are going to get you and destroy you. When you get back to Canada, we’ll get you.” [Institute of Science in Society, 9/2002]

Entity Tags: Wally Green, Percy Schmeiser, Monsanto

Category Tags: Monsanto, Monsanto v. Schmeiser, Resistance

The Canadian Catholic Organization for Development and Peace announces that it is joining the Council of Canadians in a campaign against the patenting of genetically modified (GM) seeds. Roger Dubois, the organization’s president, says one of the reasons the group opposes seed patenting is because it undermines food security and the rights of farmers, especially in the Third World. “Food security for the world’s hungry requires decentralizing control, yet biopatenting centralizes control,” says Ottawa Archbishop Marcel Gervais. The group says that many farmers have stopped using traditional seeds as a result of government programs providing free patented seeds or advertisements promising higher yields. Once hooked, the farmers are prohibited from seed saving, a practice that is thousands of years old, unless they agree to a contract and pay a special fee. Moreover, they are required to use expensive pesticides and fertilizers. Their adoption of GM crops results in the contamination of non-GM plants, thus leading to the loss of traditional seed varieties. The organization is also opposed to the development of genetically modified seeds because it threatens biodiversity and is known to cause adverse environmental consequences. It notes that GM plants that produce their own pesticides harm beneficial insects such as bees and butterflies and that herbicide resistant varieties of plants can pass their traits to their wild cousins, thus creating “superweeds.” [Canadian Press, 10/3/2002; Canada NewsWire, 10/3/2002]

Entity Tags: Council of Canadians, Canadian Catholic Organization for Development and Peace

Timeline Tags: Food Safety

Category Tags: Resistance, Farmers' rights, Food security, Biodiversity, Environment

In Curitiba, Brazil, thousands of peasant farmers, including those from Brazil’s Landless Workers Movement, demonstrate outside the Convention on Biological Diversity’s eighth conference to demand that the convention’s members uphold a de facto ban on terminator technology. Additionally, women of the international Via Campesina movement of peasant farmers stage a silent protest inside the meeting. The organization represents about 80 million farmers from some 56 countries. [ETC Group, 3/31/2006; Inter Press Service, 3/31/2006]

Entity Tags: Via Campesina, Movimento Sem Terra

Category Tags: Resistance, Terminator seeds, Terminator seeds

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